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  Cholestasis progression effects on long-term memory in bile duct ligation rats.

 Adv Biomed Res. 2014 Oct 20; 

Hosseini N 1 , Alaei H 2 , Zarrindast MR 3 , Nasehi M 4 , Radahmadi M 2 .

 Abstract

  BACKGROUND:

  There is evidence that cognitive functions are affected by some liver diseases such as cholestasis. Bile duct ligation induces cholestasis as a result of impaired liver function and cognition. This research investigates the effect of cholestasis progression on memory function in bile duct ligation rats.

  MATERIALS AND METHODS:

  MALE WISTAR RATS WERE RANDOMLY DIVIDED INTO FIVE GROUPS, WHICH INCLUDE: control group for BDL-7, control group for BDL-21, sham group (underwent laparotomy without bile duct ligation), BDL-7 group (7 days after bile duct ligation), and BDL-21 group (21 days after bile duct ligation). Step-through passive avoidance test was employed to examine memory function. In all groups, short-term (7 days after foot shock) and long-term memories (21 days after foot shock) were assessed.

  RESULTS:

  Our results showed that liver function significantly decreased with cholestasis progression (P < 0.01). Also our findings indicated BDL-21 significantly impaired acquisition time (P < 0.05). Memory retrieval impaired 7 (P < 0.05) and 21 days (P < 0.001) after foot shock in BDL-7 and BDL-21 groups, respectively.

  CONCLUSION:

  Based on these findings, liver function altered in cholestasis and memory (short-term and long-term memory) impaired with cholestasis progression in bile duct ligation rats. Further studies are needed to better insight the nature of progression of brain damage in cholestatic disease.

  KEYWORDS:

  Cholestasis; learning; memory; rat

 

  Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25371872

 


 

Latent class analysis of DSM-5 criteria for opioid use disorders: results from the Iranian National Survey on Mental Health.

 Tarrahi MJ1, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Zeraati H, Motevalian SA, Amin-Esmaeili M, Hajebi A, Sharifi V, Radgoodarzi R, Hefazi M, Fotouhi A.

Eur Addict Res. 2015;21(3):144-52. doi: 10.1159/000369338. Epub 2015 Feb 11.Abstract

BACKGROUND:

 Assessments of DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria with sample populations of opioid users are limited. This study aimed to determine the number of latent classes in opioid users and assessment of the proposed revisions to the DSM-5 opioid use disorder (OUD) criteria.

METHODS:

 Data came from the 2011 Iranian National Mental Health Survey (IranMHS) on 7,886 participants aged 15-64 years living in Iran. We used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) version 2.1 in all respondents who indicated using opioids at least 5 times in the previous 12 months (n = 236).

RESULTS:

 A three-class model provided the best fit of all the models tested. Classes showed a spectrum of severity that was compatible with the DSM-5 classification. 'Legal problems' and 'desire to cut down' showed poor discrimination between classes. The weighted prevalence of OUD using DSM-5 was 20.7% higher than with DSM-IV.

CONCLUSIONS:

 RESULTS support the grouping based on severity of symptoms, combining abuse and dependence into a single diagnosis, omitting legal problems, and addition of craving as a new criterion.

 

  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25676055

 


 

  Modulation of the effects of the cannabinoid agonist, ACPA, on spatial and non-spatial novelty detection in mice by dopamine D1 receptor drugs infused into the basolateral amygdala

  By: Mohammadi, M (Mohammadi, Meisam)[ 1 ] ; Nasehi, M (Nasehi, Mohammad)[ 2 , 3 ] ; Zarrindast, MR (Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza)[ 1 , 4 , 5 , 6 ]

  BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH

  Volume: 280

  Pages: 36-44

  DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.11.003

  Published: MAR 1 2015

  View Journal Information

  Abstract

  Aim: The amygdala is a major target of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and is implicated in learning and memory processes. This study investigates the effect of basolateral amygdale (BLA) dopamine receptors on spatial and non-spatial novelty detection deficit, induced by a selective CBI cannabinoid receptor agonist (Arachidonylcyclopropylamide; ACPA), during a non-associative task.

Methods: Male mice weighing 30-35 g were used. Open field procedure was employed to assess the spatial and non-spatial memory retention.

Results: Our data showed that post-training intraperitoneal injection of ACPA (0.02 mg/kg), intra-BLA microinjection of SKF38393 (D1 dopamine receptor agonist; at higher dose, 0.1 mu g/mouse) and SCH23390 (D1 dopamine receptor antagonist; at lowest dose, 0.005 mu g/mouse) impaired both spatial and non-spatial novelty detection. Moreover, intra-BLA microinjection of subthreshold dose of SKF38393 or SCH23390 restored and potentiated the spatial and non-spatial novelty detection impairment caused by ACPA, respectively.

Conclusion: Our results suggested that the ACPA induced impairment of memory retention, may occur through BLA D1 dopamine receptors. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  http://apps.webofknowledge.com/InboundService.do?SID=V12d6CDP%40k5oGe7dii%40&product=WOS&UT=000348255400005&SrcApp=CR&DestFail=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.webofknowledge.com&Init=Yes&action=retrieve&Func=Frame&customersID=ResearchSoft&SrcAuth=ResearchSoft&IsProductCode=Yes&mode=FullRecord

 


 

Involvement of the serotonergic system of the ventral hippocampus (CA3) on amnesia induced by ACPA in mice.

 Nasehi M1, Kafi F2, Khakpai F3, Zarrindast MR4.

 Behav Brain Res. 2015 Jun

Abstract

 Interactions between the cannabinoid and serotonin systems have been reported in many studies. In the present study, we investigated the influence of the serotonergic receptor agents on amnesia induced by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachydonilcyclopropylamide (ACPA). Bilateral guide-cannulae were implanted to allow intra-CA3 microinjection of the drugs. The results showed that the intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of ACPA induce amnesia but did not alter head dip latency, head dip counts, and locomotion. Moreover, intra-CA3 injection of M-Chlorophenylbiguanide (M-CHL, a 5-HT3 serotonin receptor agonist), Y-25130 (a 5-HT3 serotonin receptor antagonist), RS67333 (a 5-HT4 serotonin receptor agonist), and RS23597-190 (a 5-HT4 serotonin receptor antagonist) impaired memory but have no effect on head dip latency and locomotor activity. In addition, intra-CA3 injection of Y-25130, RS67333, and RS23597-190 heighten the ACPA-induced amnesia and head dip counts while did not alter head dip latency and locomotor activity. On the other hand, intra-CA3 microinjection of M-CHL could not modify the ACPA-induced amnesia, head dip latency and locomotor activity whereas increased head dip counts. It can be concluded that the amnesia induced by i.p. administration of ACPA is at least partly mediated through the serotonergic receptor mechanism in the CA3 area.

  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25771207

 


 

Influence of morphine on medial prefrontal cortex alpha2 adrenergic system in passive avoidance learning in rats.

 Torkaman-Boutorabi A1, Sheidadoust H2, Hashemi-Hezaveh SM2, Zarrindast MR3.

 Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2015 Jun;133:92-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2015.03.018. Epub 2015 Apr 3.

Abstract

 The prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a brain area crucial for memory, attention, and decision making. It has been shown that α2-adreneoceptors (α2-ARs) play a powerful role in regulating memory and attention functions in this region. Since many studies have demonstrated the impairment effect of morphine on memory through mPFC, we aimed to investigate the possible interaction between α2-ARs of the mPFC and morphine induced amnesia in passive avoidance learning in rats. Animals were bilaterally implanted with chronic cannulas in the mPFC, trained in the step-through type passive avoidance task, and tested 24h after training; step-through latencies were measured. Our data indicate that post-training i.p. administration of morphine (2.5, 5 and 7.5mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced the step-through latency, showing an amnesic effect. Post-training intra-mPFC administration of yohimbine (an α2-adrenergic antagonist, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5μg/rat) and clonidine (an α2-adrenergic agonist, 0.001, 0.01 and 0.2μg/rat), dose dependently impaired memory retrieval. Furthermore, post-training intra-mPFC microinjection of ineffective doses of yohimbine or clonidine significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of morphine on memory retrieval. Furthermore, SKF96365 (a presynaptic calcium channel blocker) reduced yohimbine and showed slight inhibition of clonidine effect. These results suggest that α2-ARs of the mPFC may play an important role in morphine-induced amnesia.

  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25847618

 

 


 

How does a group of Iranian youth conceptualize their risky sexual experiences?

 Noroozi M1, Merghati Khoei EA2, Taleghani F3, Tavakoli M4, Gholami A

 Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015 Feb 21;17(2):e18301. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.18301. eCollection 2015.

Abstract

 BACKGROUND:

 There are restrictions as well as lawful and religious prohibition for sexual relationships in Iranian society.

OBJECTIVES:

 This study explores the varied experiential reality of Iranian youth and their risky sexual experiences.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

 Data collection is based on semi-structured interviews with 30 single young men and women. Observation of interactions of youth in different settings has been another source of information. Interviews were microscopically content analyzed.

RESULTS:

 The accounts of risky sexual experiences included gendered behavioral, cultural, and cognitive factors. In the re-contextualizing process, these accounts were categorized by two main themes: "gendered sexual script" and "cultural scenarios of interpersonal interactions". The notion of "male power" was evident in the responses provided by the participants. Women seldom asked for condom use due to limited knowledge about STIs-HIV/AIDS and unpleasant experiences with condoms. Men had limited knowledge about various sexual modes of HIV and STIs transmission and did not use condoms consistently because they had not seen themselves at risk of STIs or HIV as well as their belief about the decrease of sexual pleasure.

CONCLUSIONS:

 Rising youth awareness, creating a positive attitude, and appropriate knowledge about safe sex practices are seminal. It is also vital to ensure access to gender specific sexual and reproductive health services for youths, empower women, and strengthen their sexual assertiveness as well as the elimination of all forms of gender-based inequalities

  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25838931


Latent class analysis of DSM-5 criteria for opioid use disorders: results from the Iranian National Survey on Mental Health.

 Tarrahi MJ1, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Zeraati H, Motevalian SA, Amin-Esmaeili M, Hajebi A, Sharifi V, Radgoodarzi R, Hefazi M, Fotouhi A.

Eur Addict Res. 2015;21(3):144-52. doi: 10.1159/000369338. Epub 2015 Feb 11.

Abstract

 BACKGROUND:

 Assessments of DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria with sample populations of opioid users are limited. This study aimed to determine the number of latent classes in opioid users and assessment of the proposed revisions to the DSM-5 opioid use disorder (OUD) criteria.

METHODS:

 Data came from the 2011 Iranian National Mental Health Survey (IranMHS) on 7,886 participants aged 15-64 years living in Iran. We used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) version 2.1 in all respondents who indicated using opioids at least 5 times in the previous 12 months (n = 236).

RESULTS:

 A three-class model provided the best fit of all the models tested. Classes showed a spectrum of severity that was compatible with the DSM-5 classification. 'Legal problems' and 'desire to cut down' showed poor discrimination between classes. The weighted prevalence of OUD using DSM-5 was 20.7% higher than with DSM-IV.

CONCLUSIONS:

 RESULTS support the grouping based on severity of symptoms, combining abuse and dependence into a single diagnosis, omitting legal problems, and addition of craving as a new criterion.

  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25676055

 


 

Prescription drugs, alcohol, and illicit substance use and their correlations among medical sciences students in iran.

 Abbasi-Ghahramanloo A1, Fotouhi A1, Zeraati H1, Rahimi-Movaghar A2.

Author information

 Abstract

BACKGROUND:

 Substance use among young people is a major public health problem in Iran.

OBJECTIVES:

 The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of substance misuse and its determinants in medical sciences students in Tehran, Iran.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

 A cross-sectional study was performed on a randomly selected sample of 1992 medical sciences students during 2012-2013. Anonymous, structured questionnaires were distributed among the students in each selected class. Substance misuse was defined according to cultural and epidemiological features. Data analysis was performed using chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and binary logistic regression.

RESULTS:

 The prevalence of prescription drug misuse, last year alcohol use, and ever illicit substance use was 4.9%, 6.9%, and 2.9%, respectively. The result of multiple logistic regression model showed that being a male (OR = 4.0), hookah use in the last year (OR = 3.2), prescription drug misuse (OR = 3.2), and alcohol use in the last year (OR = 3.3) were associated with the students' illicit substance use. Last year alcohol use (OR = 5.3), ever illicit substance use (OR = 3.2), and illicit substance use in friends (OR = 2.6) were associated with prescription drug misuse.

CONCLUSIONS:

 Our results suggested that the prevalence of prescription drugs, alcohol and illicit substance use was relatively low, though still significant, among Iranian students, which was strongly associated with family and friends' use. The findings of this research can be used for planning and evaluating interventions by considering the risk factors and protective factors in Universities.

 

 

  Swimming improves the emotional memory deficit by scopolamine via mu opioid receptors

  By: Nasehi, M (Nasehi, Mohammad)[ 1 ] ; Nasehi, M (Nasehi, Maryam)[ 2 ] ; Rahmani-Nia, F (Rahmani-Nia, Farhad)[ 2 ] ; Mirzaei, B (Mirzaei, Bahman)[ 2 ] ; Torabi-Nami, M (Torabi-Nami, Mohammad)[ 5 , 6 ] ; Zarrindast, MR (Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza)[ 3 , 4 , 7 , 8 ]

  PHYSIOLOGY & BEHAVIOR

  Volume: 128

  Pages: 237-246

  DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.02.011

  Published: APR 10 2014

  View Journal Information

  Abstract

  Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of swimming exercise on elevated plus-maze (EPM)-associated memory deficit induced by intra-CA1 injection of scopolamine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist used to model Alzheimer's disease in rodents) in male mice. In addition, involvement of the mu opioid receptors in this phenomenon was investigated.

Main methods: Bilateral guide cannulae were implanted to allow intra-CA1 microinjections.

Key findings: Data showed that mice with 10 and 20 days of swimming, only acquired the emotional memory, while 30 days of swimming exercise improved it. On the other hand, pretest intra-CA1 injection of scopolamine at the doses of 2 and 3 but not 1 mu g/mouse reduced the emotional memory. Our results demonstrated that 20 days of swimming by itself and without any drug injection restored the emotional memory deficit induced by intra-CA1 injection of scopolamine, only at the dose of 2 but not 3 mu g/mouse. Moreover, once daily injection of the subthreshold doses of morphine (2.5 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.) during the last 7 days of the 20 day-swimming intervention, improved the emotional memory deficit induced by scopolamine (3 mu g/mouse) and this effect could be blocked by the subthreshold doses of naloxone (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg). It was noted that all previous interventions did not alter the anxiety-like behaviors.

Significance: Swimming improved the emotional memory by itself and restored the emotional memory deficit induced by the intra-CA1 injection of scopolamine. Mu opioid receptor-dependent mechanism(s) is(are) suggested to play a role in this phenomenon. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  http://apps.webofknowledge.com/InboundService.do?SID=V12d6CDP%40k5oGe7dii%40&product=WOS&UT=000335106200034&SrcApp=CR&DestFail=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.webofknowledge.com&Init=Yes&action=retrieve&Func=Frame&customersID=ResearchSoft&SrcAuth=ResearchSoft&IsProductCode=Yes&mode=FullRecord

 


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 Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2015 Mar 20;4(1):e21945. doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.21945. eCollection 2015.

Prescription drugs, alcohol, and illicit substance use and their correlations among medical sciences students in iran.

 Abbasi-Ghahramanloo A1, Fotouhi A1, Zeraati H1, Rahimi-Movaghar A2.

Author information

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

 Substance use among young people is a major public health problem in Iran.

OBJECTIVES:

 The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of substance misuse and its determinants in medical sciences students in Tehran, Iran.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

 A cross-sectional study was performed on a randomly selected sample of 1992 medical sciences students during 2012-2013. Anonymous, structured questionnaires were distributed among the students in each selected class. Substance misuse was defined according to cultural and epidemiological features. Data analysis was performed using chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and binary logistic regression.

RESULTS:

 The prevalence of prescription drug misuse, last year alcohol use, and ever illicit substance use was 4.9%, 6.9%, and 2.9%, respectively. The result of multiple logistic regression model showed that being a male (OR = 4.0), hookah use in the last year (OR = 3.2), prescription drug misuse (OR = 3.2), and alcohol use in the last year (OR = 3.3) were associated with the students' illicit substance use. Last year alcohol use (OR = 5.3), ever illicit substance use (OR = 3.2), and illicit substance use in friends (OR = 2.6) were associated with prescription drug misuse.

CONCLUSIONS:

 Our results suggested that the prevalence of prescription drugs, alcohol and illicit substance use was relatively low, though still significant, among Iranian students, which was strongly associated with family and friends' use. The findings of this research can be used for planning and evaluating interventions by considering the risk factors and protective factors in Universities.

 

  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25821750


Iranian Journal of Epidemiology

 Volume 10, Issue 4, 2015, Pages 78-88

Scientometrics: Review of concepts, applications, and indicators (Review)

 Yazdani, K.a,

 Nedjat, S.b,

 Rahimi-Movaghar, A.c,

 Ghalichee, L.d,

 Khalili, M.e

  

 a Department Of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
b Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Knowledge Utilization Research Center, Tehran University Of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
c Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

 View additional affiliations

 View references (38)

Abstract

 Background and Objectives: In the current age, due to the increasing growth of knowledge and competition therein, evaluation of scientific products by means of scientometric methods has become a very important and necessary subject. Scientometrics, in simple words, is the science of measuring the knowledge. Scientometric indices are divided into three categories: productivity metrics that measure the productivity of the researchers or research groups, impact metrics that assess the quality (or performance) of journals, researchers, or research groups, and hybrid metrics that are used to summarize both productivity and effect metrics in one index. Scientometric studies help policy makers and managers of universities and heads of research centers in allocating budget, creating a balance between the budget and costs, making appointments, and promoting the researchers and institutes, and results in better recognition of weaknesses and strengths of their affiliated groups by evaluation of priorities, perspectives, and capacities. Meanwhile, this new knowledge can help with systematic evaluation and ranking of universities and research centers. This paper provides a review on scientometric concepts and its applications and discussed scientometric indices. © 2015, Iranian Journal of Epidemiology. All right reserved.

  http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-84924955071&origin=inward&txGid=C69B8FDECE15A848AD29BBE1E24FA2E4.mw4ft95QGjz1tIFG9A1uw%3a1

 


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 Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery. 2015 Jan;3(1):39-50.

Vaginal Delivery vs. Cesarean Section: A Focused Ethnographic Study of Women's Perceptions in The North of Iran.

 Zakerihamidi M1, Latifnejad Roudsari R2, Merghati Khoei E3.

Author information

 Abstract

 BACKGROUND:

 Cesarean section (C-section) in the North of Iran accounts for 70% of childbirths, which is higher than the national average of 55%. Understanding women's perceptions towards modes of delivery in different cultures can pave the way for promoting programs and policies in support of vaginal delivery. We aimed to investigate women's perceptions towards modes of delivery in the North of Iran.

METHODS:

 Using a focused ethnographic approach and purposive sampling, 12 pregnant women, 10 women with childbirth experience, nine non-pregnant women, seven midwives, and seven gynecologists were selected from hospitals, healthcare centers, and clinics of Tonekabon and Chaloos, Mazandaran, Iran, during 2012-2014. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and participant observation. Data analysis was performed using thematic analysis using MAXqda software.

RESULTS:

 Two major themes emerged from the data including: "vaginal delivery, a facilitator of women's physical and mental health promotion", and "C-section, a surgical intervention associated with decreased labor pain". Six sub-themes subsumed within these major themes were: vaginal delivery as a safe mode of delivery, fullfilment of maternal instinct, a natural process with a pleasant ending, and C-section as a procedure associated with future complications, a surgical intervention and sometimes a life saving procedure, and a painless mode of delivery.

CONCLUSION:

 In the North of Iran, women's justified cultural beliefs overshadow their micsconceptions, so it is hopped that through implementing appropriate training programs for raising awarness and correcting miscomceptions, vaginal delivery could be promoted even in regions with high rates of cesarean section.

  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25553333

 


 

  The Effectiveness of the Life Skills and Problem-Solving Training on Increasing Coping Stress among Addicts under Treatment with Buprenorphine

 

  MARTINIA

  ISSN: 0297-0902

 

  Hossein Gharaati Sotudeh , Hossnieh Goodarzi2, Ameneh Moazedian3, Tahereh Pashaei4*

  

  Abstract

  The purpose of this study, was to investigate the effect of life skills and problem-solving training on increasing coping stress among addicts. The design of the study is semi-experimental with pretest -posttest and control group. The population of the study was all addicts referred voluntarily to Opioids Behzisty’s centers in Tehran. 30 addicts were randomly allocated into experimental group (N=15) and control group (N=15). The life skills and problem-solving training was demonstrated in 8 weekly sessions on the experimental group while the control group received only the Agonist. Coping stress method (CS-R) questionnaire ( ) were completed by both groups before and after intervention. The data was analyzed by covariance analysis method. There was significant difference in coping stress between two groups after intervention. Results demonstrated that the life skills and problem-solving training lead to significant increase in experimental group’s coping stress. Regarding to effectiveness of the life skills and problem-solving on coping stress, it may also be used as a supplement method decreasing stress among addicts.

  http://martinia.com/archive9.html

 

 

- مکانيسم های عصبی دخيل در قطع مصرف مورفين در افراد وابسته به مواد (بررسی مروری) (2014)

- نويسندگان: نيما باب هادی عشر، گلناز واثقی، محمود رفيان کوپايی، ساسان عندليب، آزاده اشراقی، نوشين مسعوديان

- چکيده:

Morphine has been known as the first active principle purified from herbal source. It is one of the most potent alkaloid in opium, which has substantial medical uses and needs. Morphine has commonly been utilized for relief of moderate to severe pain as it acts directly on the central nervous system; however, its chronic misuse gives rise to tolerance and physical dependence, that is, opiate addiction. Morphine withdrawal syndrome is also physiological and behavioral symptoms that stem from prolonged exposure to morphine. A majority of brain regions are hypofunctional over prolonged abstinence and acute morphine withdrawal. More to the point, several neural mechanisms have thus far been demonstrated to contribute to morphine withdrawal. The present review summarizes the literature pertaining to neural mechanisms underlying morphine withdrawal. In spite of the fact that morphine withdrawal is a complex process, it is tempting to suggest that neural mechanisms serve key roles in morphine withdrawal.

Key words: morphine withdrawal, neural mechanisms, morphine withdrawal syndrome, morphine dependence

انتشارات مرکز اينکاس دز سال 2014


1- COMPARISON OF CRAVING FOR OPIOID IN OPIOID-DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS AND PEOPLE UNDER METHADONE MAINTENANCE TREATMENT


- Authors:

Azita Chehri, Fereshte Mirzaee, Habibolah Khazaie, Omid Rezaei, Hamed Ekhtiari, Azarkhsh Mokri, Behroz Dolatshahi, Payman Hassani Abharian

- Abstract:

Background: Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) is the most important treatment for opioid -dependency recurrence. The aim of this study was to compare the craving level in opioid-dependent individuals and people under methadone maintenance therapy.

Methods: In this case &ndash; control study, 120 men with opioid dependency were   selected through  cluster sampling method. They were divided into two groups, 60 people in opioid-dependent group and 60 people in MMT group. Both groups were matched    for age, sex, marital status, education, duration of opioid dependency and method of consumption. Then, they completed INCAS Substance Abuse Profile (ISAP), opiate withdrawal symptoms checklist, self&ndash;report of craving, Desire for Drug Questionnaire (DDQ), Obsessive Compulsive Drug   Use Scale (OCDUS) and visual cue-induced craving questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using t-test and ANOVA.

Results: Mean craving for drug significantly was lower in MMT group comparing opioid-dependent group (P<0.01).

Conclusion: Methadone Maintenance Therapy decreased the craving for drugs and substances This can have an important role in relapse prevention.


2- Advertising representation, treatment menu and economic circulation of substance misuse treatment centers in Iran: A rapid survey based on newspaper advertisements (International of Drug Policy: Volume 25, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages 465&ndash;470)


- Authors:

Sobhan Rezaee, Hamed Ekhtiari

- Abstract:

Methods:

During a four-week period (April to May) in 2009, the four most popular Persian newspapers printed in Tehran were reviewed. Across these publications 1704 advertisements were posted by 66 SMT centers. Each center was then contacted by telephone to complete a structured interview about services offered and related costs. The advertisements were also decoded through a quantitative contextual analysis method.

Results:

On average, each SMT center published 26 advertisements during the review period, costing 421 US$. In addition, advertisements included word signifiers in six main categories including centers&rsquo; introduction (100%), treatment types (91%), treatment duration (68%), medicines (70%), treatment features (60%) and psychological facilities (52%). The three detoxification programs advertised were the rapid method (57% of clinics, 443.23 US$), buprenorphine (68%, 265 US$) and methadone (71%, 137 US$). More than 90% of the centers in Tehran were offering methadone maintenance (99 US$, per month).

Conclusion

SMT services in the Iranian market ranged from abstinence to maintenance programs, with opiates as the main focus. This review of centers&rsquo; advertisements provides an indirect but rapidly obtained picture of the drug misuse treatment network.


3- Patterns of Brain Activation During Craving in Heroin Dependents Successfully Treated by Methadone Maintenance and Abstinence-Based Treatments (Journal of Addiction Medicine: March/April 2014 - Volume 8 - Issue 2)


- Authors:

Tabatabaei-Jafari, Hossein MD; Ekhtiari, Hamed MD; Ganjgahi, Habib MSc; Hassani-Abharian, Peyman MD, PhD; Oghabian, Mohammad-Ali PhD; Moradi, Afsaneh MA; Sadighi, Nahid MD; Zarei, Mojtaba MD, PhD

- Abstract:

Objective:

Abstinence-based therapy (ABT) and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) are common methods of treatment in heroin dependence as both suppress subjective feeling of drug craving. However, it is not clear whether the neural basis of craving suppression is similar in both types of treatments. In this study, we compared brain activation during pictorial presentation of heroin-related cues in ABT and MMT groups to understand the neural basis of drug craving in these groups.

Methods:

Three groups of subjects (successful ABT and MMT clients and healthy control) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, while heroin-related cues and neutral cues were presented to them. In addition, subjective cue-elicited craving has been measured using drug drive questionnaire before and after imaging.

Result:

Self-report of craving was not different between ABT and MMT groups before and after scanning. Anterior cingulate cortex and inferior frontal gyrus showed higher activations in ABT than in healthy control. Inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus showed higher activity in ABT than in MMT. Lingual gyrus and cerebellum showed higher activity in MMT than in healthy control.

Conclusions:

Heroin avoidance may be achieved by MMT or ABT; however, the neural mechanism underlying these therapeutic methods differs.


4- State dependent effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on methamphetamine craving (Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014 Oct;17(10))


- Authors:

Alireza Shahbabaie, Mehrshad Golesorkhi, Behnam Zamanian, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Fatemeh Keshvari, Vahid Nejati, Felipe Fregni and Hamed Ekhtiari

- Abstract:

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate subjective craving ratings in drug dependents by modification of cortical excitability in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Given the mechanism of craving in methamphetamine (meth) users, we aimed to test whether tDCS of DLPFC could also alter self-reported craving in abstinent meth users while being exposed to meth cues. In this double-blinded, crossover, sham-controlled study, thirty two right-handed abstinent male meth users were recruited. We applied 20 min &lsquo;anodal&rsquo; tDCS (2 mA) or &lsquo;sham&rsquo; tDCS over right DLPFC in a random sequence while subjects performed a computerized cue-induced craving task (CICT) starting after 10 min of stimulation. Immediate craving was assessed before the stimulation, after 10 min of tDCS, and after tDCS termination by visual analog scale (VAS) of 0 to 100. Anodal tDCS of rDLPFC altered craving ratings significantly. We found a significant reduction of craving at rest in real tDCS relative to the sham condition (p = 0.016) after 10 min of stimulation. On the other hand, cue-induced VAS craving was rated significantly higher in the real condition in comparison with sham stimulation (p = 0.012). Our findings showed a state dependent effect of tDCS: while active prefrontal tDCS acutely reduced craving at rest in the abstinent meth users, it increased craving during meth-related cue exposure. These findings reflect the important role of the prefrontal cortex in both cue saliency evaluation and urge to meth consumption.


5- Using tincture of opium for treatment of opiate abusers in Iran(Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Volume 140, Issue null, Pages e200, 1 July 2014)


- Abstract:

Leila Seiri, A. Mokri, H. Dezhakam, A. Noroozi


6- Relationship between Craving for Methamphetamine and Personality Characteristics among Patients in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program (Iran Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology: Vol.19, No.3, Fall 2003, 177-186)


- Authors:

Mohammad Oraki , Azarakhsh Mokri , Seyed Majid Kiaei Ziabari

- Abstract:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between craving for methamphetamine and personality characteristics of patients under methadone maintenance treatment (MMT).

Method: Eighty patients under MMT were chosen from Iranian National Centers for Addiction Study, Aftab Society, Aftab-e-Mehrvarzi, and a private infirmary and thereafter answered to Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Desires for Drug Questionnaire (DDQ). Data analysis was done by one-sample t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient.

Results: The results showed that the subjects obtained higher than the norm scores in novelty seeking and harm avoidance and lower than the norm scores in reward dependence, self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence. Furthermore, craving for methamphetamine had a positive correlation with novelty seeking (p<0.002), but negative correlation with cooperativeness (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Through recognizing personality traits and the amount of craving for drug in patient on MMT, it is possible to predict whether they stay in or leave the treatment.


7- Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with non-fluent aphasia disorder (Audiology: Volume 23, Number 2 (6-2014))


- Authors:

Mohsen Saeidmanesh , Hamidreza Pouretemad , Reza Nilipoor , Hamed Ekhtiari

- Abstract:

Background: Aphasia, after stroke in the left hemisphere, is a common symptom. These patients often experience incomplete recovery despite intensive speech therapy. Direct electrical stimulation of the brain is a technique to stimulate the brain in patients with neurological and psychiatric diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this stimulation on recovery of naming ability, working memory, and aphasia quotient and the lasting duration in patients with non-fluent aphasia.

Methods: In this interventional study, 10 patients with after-stroke non-fluent aphasia were enrolled. Their aphasia quotient, working memory and naming ability scores were compared before and after sham and real treatments and two months after the real treatment. 10 sessions of 20-minutes sham electrical stimulation and 10 sessions of 20-minutes anodic and cathodic stimulation (2 mA) at the dorsal lateral perifrontal cortex was done for each patient. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA and Friedman nonparametric tests.

Results: The ability of naming and working memory scores were increased significantly after treatment and two months after it compared with before study and after sham treatment (p<0.05 for all). There was no significant improvement in aphasia quotient.

Conclusion: The transcranial direct current stimulation can sustain improvement in naming function and working memory in patients with non-fluent aphasia. It can be used in the rehabilitation program of these patients.


8- Structure, Microstructure and Optical Properties of Sn-doped ZnO Thin Films (Journal of Alloys and Compounds: Volume 593, 25 April 2014, Pages 148&ndash;153)


- Authors:

N. Chahmat, T. Souier, A. Mokri, M. Bououdina, M.S. Aida, M. Ghers

- Abstract:

Transparent and conductive Sn&ndash;ZnO films were successfully doped up to higher concentration of 10 wt% by spray pyrolysis on glass substrates. Structural, microstructural, and optical characterizations were carried out. All the films crystallise within the w&uuml;rtzite hexagonal structure, confirming successful Sn doping, but with different preferred orientation depending on Sn concentration. Despite these differences, the thin films show enhanced crystalline properties up to 8% of Sn, in agreement with SEM images that reveal grains with regular shape and sharp edges. In disagreements with reported data, the increase in Sn concentration improves the crystalline properties and increases the grain size, i.e. 20&ndash;200 nm. It is important to note that only at high doping level of 10%, the crystalline properties are slightly degraded. In line with this observation, the Urbach tail energy of 10% film reaches a value of 145 meV which is attributed to a disorder in the film structural and crystalline properties. Finally, the optical band gap was found to increase with increasing Sn up to 6% followed with a slight decrease at higher Sn concentration. The shift in the bad gap energy with Sn doping is discussed in terms of widening due to Burstein&ndash;Moss effect and narrowing due to many-body effect. It is found that 4% seems to be the optimal doping concentration for Sn-doped ZnO films, with enhanced crystalline and structural properties, and with a transmittance similar or even higher than un-doped ZnO film.


9- self-confidence in patients with opiod dependence: efficacy of group therapy based on life skill and problem solving training (J. Life Sci. Biomed. 4(5) 383-387, 2014


- Authors:

Hossein Gharati Sotoudeh, Amene Moazedian, Habib-Allah Ibrahimi Bakht and Behrouz Feizi

- Abstract:

Since lack of self-confidence is identified as an important factor in opioid addiction, life skills training are crucial to create a sense of empowerment. In this study, the effect of life skills training and problem solving was investigated in increasing self-confidence in the addicts treated with buprenorphine. This is a semi-experimental study with pre-test &ndash; post-test and control group. The statistical study population included all addicts treated in Tehran Welfare Organization Addiction Clinics in spring 2013. In addition, 30 subjects were selected as sample size using random sampling method. The subjects were divided into two experimental and control groups. Eysenck confidence questionnaire was used for data collection. The experimental group received 8 sessions of life skills and problem solving training once a week. Confidence in the addicts who had received life skill training in the experimental group at posttest was significantly higher than the control group.
Conclusion: according to study results, life skill training is effective in increasing self-confidence in the addicts. This training can be used as a supplement to treat addiction.


10- Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence with Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) in Iran: A Critical Note (Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 2014. 9(3):184-187)


- Authors:

Babak Roshanaei-Moghaddam, Michael C. Pauly

- Abstract:

Objevtive: This comment article reviews the literature to explore whether the use of ECT for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence can be justified by scientific rationale and/or evidence.
Method: This article reviews the literature on the use of ECT in addictive disorders. It describes a patient with methamphetamine dependence treated with ECT. It then offers a historical review of the moral and ethical difficulties encountered in the treatment of addictive disorders. It proposes a dynamic understanding as to why clinicians might deploy such
brutal actions in the face of hopeless and emotionally intense encounters.
Results: We found no scientific evidence or justification for ECT as a treatment of methamphetamine dependence or as the first line treatment for methamphetamine-induced psychiatric comorbidities
Conclusion: the current available evidence does not support using ECT for the treatment of addictive disorders, and hence is unethical, unacceptable and inhumane and warrants immediate social and political attention.


11- Effects of cholestasis on learning and locomotor activity in bile duct ligated rats (Malays J Med Sci. 2014 Jan;21(1):19-28.)


- Authors:

Hosseini N, Alaei H, Nasehi M, Radahmadi M, Mohammad Reza Z

- Abstracts:

BACKGROUND:

Cognitive functions are impaired in patients with liver disease. Bile duct ligation causes cholestasis that impairs liver function. This study investigated the impact of cholestasis progression on the acquisition and retention times in the passive avoidance test and on the locomotor activity of rats.

METHODS:

Cholestasis was induced in male Wistar rats by ligating the main bile duct. Locomotor activity, learning and memory were assessed by the passive avoidance learning test at day 7, day 14, and day 21 post-bile duct ligation. The serum levels of bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were measured.

RESULTS:

The results showed that acquisition time and locomotor activity were not affected at day 7 and day 14, but they were significantly (P < 0.05) impaired at day 21 post-bile duct ligation compared with the results for the control group. Additionally, memory was significantly impaired on day 7 (P < 0.01), day 14, and day 21 (P < 0.001) compared with the control groups. The levels of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher at day 7, day 14, and day 21 post-bile duct ligation compared with the levels in the sham group.

CONCLUSION:

Based on these findings, both liver and memory function were affected in the early stage of cholestasis (7 days after bile duct ligation), while learning and locomotor activity were impaired at 21 days after bile duct ligation following the progression of cholestasis.


12- Involvement of the CA1 GABAA receptors in MK-801-induced anxiolytic-like effects: an isobologram analysis (Behavioural Pharmacology: June 2014 - Volume 25 - Issue 3 - p 197-205)


- Authors:

Naseri, Mohammad-Hasan; Hesami-tackallou, Saeed; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Nasehi, Mohammad

- Abstract:

There seems to be a close relationship between hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) and GABAA receptors with respect to the modulation of behavior that occurs in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. This study investigated the possible involvement of the CA1 GABAA receptors in anxiolytic-like effects induced by (+)-MK-801 (a noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA subtype of the glutamate receptor). Male Wistar rats were subjected to the elevated plus-maze apparatus and open arm time (%OAT), and open arm entries (%OAE) for anxiety-related behaviors, and closed arm entries that correspond to the locomotor activity were assessed. An intra-CA1 injection of (+)-MK-801 (2 &mu;g/rat) and muscimol (0.5 &mu;g/rat; a GABAA receptor agonist) increased %OAT and %OAE by themselves while not altering the closed arm entries, indicating an anxiolytic-like effect of these drugs. Injection of bicuculline (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 &mu;g/rat; a GABAA receptor antagonist) did not alter any of the anxiety-related parameters. An intra-CA1 injection of a subthreshold dose of muscimol (0.1 &mu;g/rat) or bicuculline (0.5 &mu;g/rat), 5 min before injection of subthreshold and effective doses of (+)-MK-801 (0.5, 1 and 2 &mu;g/rat), increased and decreased the anxiolytic-like effect of (+)-MK-801, respectively. The isobologram analysis of these findings suggested a synergistic anxiety-like effect of intra-CA1 (+)-MK-801 and muscimol. In conclusion, the CA1 GABAA receptors appear to be involved in anxiolytic-like behaviors induced by (+)-MK-801.


13- Cyclic AMP pathway modifies memory through neural cell adhesion molecule alterations in the rat hippocampus (Acta Med Iran. 2014;52(4):246-55.)


- Authors:

Razmi A, Sahebgharani M, Khani MH, Paylakhi SH, Faizi M, Zarrindast MR.

- Abstract:

Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules (NCAMs) are known to influence memory by affecting neural cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix junctions. This study investigated the possible role of cAMP pathway in the expression of hippocampal NCAM and its polysialylated derivative (PSA-NCAM). The following pharmacological tools were employed for manipulation of cAMP pathway: a) forskolin; the activator of adenylyl cyclase (AC), b) 8-Br-cAMP; a protein kinase A (PKA) agonist, c) 8-pCPT-2&#39;-O-Me-cAMP; a selective enhancer of exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) and d) Rp-cAMP; a PKA inhibitor. Memory acquisition was tested by passive avoidance paradigm after injecting the above compounds for three consecutive days into the CA1 region of dorsal hippocampus of rats. Forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP enhanced memory retrieval while Rp-cAMP significantly reduced memory and NCAM levels. 8-pCPT-2&#39;-O-Me-cAMP failed to alter memory performance or NCAM levels as compared to vehicle. We observed no significant changes in PSA-NCAM, however the expression of St8sia4 and St8sia2 (the polysialyltransferase isoforms) were altered. The mRNA levels of St8sia4 was down-regulated by 8-Br-cAMP, Rp-cAMP and 8-pCPT while forskolin led to almost 3 and 5 fold increase in mRNAs of St8sia2 and St8sia4, respectively. The current insight might endorse the predominant role of PKA as compared to Epac in cAMP pathway in expression of NCAM and memory function.


14- Swimming improves the emotional memory deficit by scopolamine via mu opioid receptors (Physiology & Behavior: Volume 128, 10 April 2014, Pages 237&ndash;246)


- Authors:

Mohammad Nasehi, Maryam Nasehi, Farhad Rahmani-Nia, Bahman Mirzaei, Mohammad Torabi-Nami, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast

- Abstract

Aims

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of swimming exercise on elevated plus-maze (EPM)-associated memory deficit induced by intra-CA1 injection of scopolamine (a muscarinicacetylcholine receptor antagonist used to model Alzheimer&#39;s disease in rodents) in male mice. In addition, involvement of the mu opioid receptors in this phenomenon was investigated.

Main methods

Bilateral guide cannulae were implanted to allow intra-CA1 microinjections.

Key findings

Data showed that mice with 10 and 20 days of swimming, only acquired the emotional memory, while 30 days of swimming exercise improved it. On the other hand, pretest intra-CA1 injection of scopolamine at the doses of 2 and 3 but not 1 &mu;g/mouse reduced the emotional memory. Our results demonstrated that 20 days of swimming by itself and without any drug injection restored the emotional memory deficit induced by intra-CA1 injection of scopolamine, only at the dose of 2 but not 3 &mu;g/mouse. Moreover, once daily injection of the subthreshold doses of morphine (2.5 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.) during the last 7 days of the 20 day-swimming intervention, improved the emotional memory deficit induced by scopolamine (3 &mu;g/mouse) and this effect could be blocked by the subthreshold doses of naloxone (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg). It was noted that all previous interventions did not alter the anxiety-like behaviors.

Significance

Swimming improved the emotional memory by itself and restored the emotional memory deficit induced by the intra-CA1 injection of scopolamine. Mu opioid receptor-dependent mechanism(s) is(are) suggested to play a role in this phenomenon.


15- Differential role of the basolateral amygdala 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 serotonin receptors upon ACPA-induced anxiolytic-like behaviors and emotional memory deficit in mice (Behavioral Brain Research: Volume 261, 15 March 2014, Pages 114&ndash;126


- Authors:

Hamid-Reza Chegini, Mohammad Nasehi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast

- Abstract:

Background and aim

The critical role of cannabinoidergic and serotonergic systems of the amygdala in modulation of anxiety-like behaviors and emotional memory has already been demonstrated. The present study aimed to investigate the possible role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 serotonergic systems upon ACPA (CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist)-induced anxiolytic-like behaviors and emotional memory impairment using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test-retest paradigm in male mice.

Method

bilateral guide-cannulae were implanted to allow intra-BLA microinjection of serotonergic agents.

Results

the intraperitoneal injection of ACPA could induce anxiolytic-like behaviors and reduce the emotional memory formation. Intra-BLA injection of M-Chlorophenylbiguanide (M-Chl, a 5-HT3 serotonin receptoragonist) neither altered the anxiety-like behaviors nor the emotional memory formation by itself, while the higher dose of Y-25130 (a 5-HT3 serotonin receptor antagonist) reduced the emotional memory formation and locomotor activity but not the anxiety-like behaviors. Furthermore, injection of a higher dose of RS67333 and RS23597 (as 5-HT4 serotonin receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively) did not alter the anxiety-like behaviors, while reduced the emotional memory formation. In addition, the intra-BLA injection of M-Chl but not Y-25130 and RS67333 restored the ACPA-induced anxiolytic-like behaviors andemotional memory deficit, while a higher dose of RS67333 decreased the locomotor activity. Moreover, the intra-BLA microinjection of RS23597 could restore the ACPA-induced anxiolytic-like behaviors but not the emotional memory deficit.

Conclusion

based on our findings, ACPA seems to induce its anxiolytic-like behaviors and emotional memory formation deficits via activation and deactivation of the BLA 5-HT4 and 5-HT3 serotonin receptors.


16- Increased calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity by morphine-sensitization in rat hippocampus (Behavioral Brain Research: Volume 267, 1 July 2014, Pages 74&ndash;82)


- Authors:

Mehdi Kadivar, Maryam Farahmandfar, Faezeh Esmaeli Ranjbar, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast

- Abstract:

Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse, such as morphine, elicits a progressive enhancement of drug-induced behavioral responses, a phenomenon termed behavioral sensitization. These changes in behavior may reflect long-lasting changes in some of the important molecules involved in memory processing such as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). In the present study, we investigated the effect of morphine sensitization on mRNA expression of &alpha; and &beta; isoforms and activity ofCaMKII in the hippocampus of male rats. Animals were treated for 3 days with saline or morphine (20 mg/kg) and following a washout period of 5 days, a challenge dose of morphine (5 mg/kg) were administered. The results indicate that morphine administration in pre-treated animals produces behavioral sensitization, as determined by significant increase in locomotion and oral stereotypy behavior. In addition, repeated morphine treatment increased mRNA expression of both &alpha; and &beta; isoforms of CaMKII in the hippocampus. The present study also showed that induction of morphine sensitization significantly increased both Ca2+/calmodulin-independent and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent activities of CaMK II in the rat hippocampus. However, acute administration of morphine (5 mg/kg) did not alter either &alpha; and &beta; CaMKII mRNA expression or CaMKII activity in the hippocampus. The stimulation effects of morphine sensitization on mRNA expression and activity of CaMKII were completely abolished by administration of naloxone, 30 min prior to s.c. injections of morphine (20 mg/kg/day &times; 3 days). Our data demonstrated that induction ofmorphine sensitization could effectively modulate the activity and the mRNA expression of CaMKII in the hippocampus and this effect of morphine was exerted by the activation of opioid receptors.


17- Involvement of the nucleus accumbens shell glutamatergic system in ACPA-induced impairment of inhibitory avoidance memory (Behavioral Brain Research: Volume 269, 1 August 2014, Pages 28&ndash;36)


- Authors:

Khalil Rasekhi, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Mohammad Nasehi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast

- Abstract:

Interactions between cannabinoid and glutamate systems have been demonstrated in some brain areas associated with mnemonic functions. This study investigates the effects of bilateral post-training intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell administrations of glutamate NMDA receptor agents on memory impairment induced by cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation during a step-through inhibitory avoidance (IA) task. Our results showed post-training administration of ACPA (CB1 receptor agonist; 3 ng/side) impairs IA memory consolidation, whereas AM251 (CB1 receptor antagonist; 0.3, 3 and 30 ng/side), NMDA (0.3, 3 and 30 ng/side), and d-AP7 (NMDA receptor antagonist; 3, 30 and 300 ng/side) were ineffective. However, co-administration of AM251 (30 ng/side) or NMDA (30 ng/side) with ACPA (3 ng/side) prevented the memory-impairing effect of ACPA. Meanwhile, co-administration of NMDA (30 ng/side) and a subthreshold dose of ACPA (0.15 ng/side) decreased memory consolidation. Moreover, post-training microinjection of AM251 (30 ng/side) or d-AP7 (300 ng/side) prevented memory impairment induced by co-administration of subthreshold doses of NMDA and ACPA. The data indicated that NMDA receptor mechanism(s), at least partly, play(s) a role in modulating the effect of ACPA on memory consolidation in the NAc shell.


18- Hippocampal &alpha;-adrenoceptors involve in the effect of histamine on spatial learning (Physiology & Behavior: Volume 129, 22 April 2014, Pages 17&ndash;24)


- Authors:

Anahita Torkaman-Boutorabi, Fatemeh Danyali, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast

- Abstract:

Spatial learning is a model of higher human cognitive functions which is used for studying animal behavior. Histaminergic and noradrenergic systems play a modulatory role in learning and memory. The present study aimed to test the effects of &alpha;-adrenoceptor agonist/antagonist microinjection into the CA1 region of dorsal hippocampus on histamine-induced spatial learning facilitation in the water maze task. Pre-training intra-CA1 microinjection of &alpha;1- or &alpha;2-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (0.0025 &mu;g/rat) or clonidine (0.05 &mu;g/rat) decreased traveled distance and escape latency at the start of the training phase, suggesting a spatial learning facilitation; while the higher dose of the drugs (phenylephrine 0.005 &mu;g/rat, clonidine 0.2 and 0.5 &mu;g/rat) increased the performance level at the end of the training phase, indicating a water maze spatial acquisition impairment. However, &alpha;1-receptor antagonist, prazosin (1 &mu;g/rat) impaired spatial learning; &alpha;2-receptor antagonist, yohimbine (0.25 &mu;g/rat) facilitated spatial acquisition. Moreover, pre-training intra-CA1 microinjection of a subthreshold dose of phenylephrine (0.001 &mu;g/rat) reversed histamine response, while ineffective dose co-administration of clonidine (0.1 &mu;g/rat) potentiated histamine(0.01 &mu;g/rat) response. Subthreshold dose of prazosin or yohimbine did not alter histamine response. Bilateral infusion of histamine (0.05 &mu;g/rat) facilitated spatial learning by itself. Furthermore, the drug&#39;s injections had no effect on swimming speed on the training days of MWM. These results suggest that &alpha;-adrenergic receptors of the dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions may play an important role in histamine-induced facilitation of spatial acquisition.


19- The involvement of dorsal hippocampus in dextromethorphan-induced state-dependent learning in mice (Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior: Volume 116, January 2014, Pages 90&ndash;95)


- Authors:

Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast, Vahid Ownegh, Ameneh Rezayof, Farid Ownegh

- Abstract:

In an effort to understand the effect of dextromethorphan (DM; 3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan), a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors on memory retrieval, male NMRI mice received intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intra-CA1 injection of this drug before or after training and before testing in passive avoidance task. Pre-training i.p. (20 mg/kg) or intra-CA1 (0.5 and 1 &mu;g/mouse) administration of DM induced amnesia in a dose-dependent manner. Post-training i.p. (10 and 20 mg/kg) or intra-CA administration of DM (0.5 and 1 &mu;g/mouse) however, did not affect the memory retrieval. Moreover, memory retrieval was impaired in animals receiving either i.p. (20 mg/kg) or intra-CA1 administration of DM (0.5 and 1 &mu;g/mouse) prior to testing, suggesting the DM-induced amnesia. Interestingly, the amnestic effect of pre-training i.p. (20 mg/kg) or intra-CA1 administration of DM (1 &mu;g/mouse) was restored in mice receiving pre-test i.p. (5 and 10 mg/kg) or intra-CA1 (0.25 and 0.5 &mu;g/mouse) administration of the drug, indicating DM-induced state-dependent learning. Taken together, it can be concluded that DM administration impairs memory retrieval in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, DM can induce state-dependent learning. Dorsal hippocampus appears to play an important role upon DM influence of learning and memory processes.


20- Agreement between DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for opioid use disorders in two Iranian samples (Addictive Behaviors: Volume 39, Issue 3, March 2014, Pages 553&ndash;557)


- Authors:

Mohammad Javad Tarrahi, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Hojjat Zeraati, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili, Abbas Motevalian, Ahmad Hajebi, Vandad Sharifi, Reza Radgoodarzi, Mitra Hefazi, Akbar Fotouhi

- Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the agreement between the two systems in opioid users in the general population and a clinical sample. Two series of data were used in this study. The first was the data of 236 home-residing opioid abusers aged 15&ndash;64, who had previously participated in the Iran Mental Health Survey (IranMHS) in 2011, and the second was the data of 104 general psychiatry patients from inpatient or outpatient wards of two psychiatry hospitals in Tehran. Opioid use disorders were evaluated with CIDI-version 2.1. The disorders were assessed in all participants who used opioid substances for at least 5 times during the past 12 months. In the sample from the general population, the agreement between the two systems on the diagnosis of dependence was excellent (0.81). The agreement between the two systems on the diagnosis of abuse and harmful use was 0.41. In the clinical sample, the agreement between the two systems on the diagnosis of dependence or any opioid use disorder was 0.96 and 0.93, respectively. The agreement between abuse and harmful use was 0.9 and &minus; 0.02 with and without regarding hierarchy, respectively. The inter-rater reliability of both DSM-IV and ICD-10 systems for all diagnosis was more than 0.95. The results of the diagnosis of dependence in the two systems had a weak concordance with treatment. The diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV and ICD-10 regarding dependence are very similar and the diagnosis produced by each system is concordant with the other system. However, the two systems have noticeable discrepancies in the diagnosis of abuse and harmful use. The discrepancies result from their conceptual differences and necessitate further revision in the definition of these disorders in the two systems.


21- Iranian Mental Health Survey: Design and Field Procedures (Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 2014. 9(2):96-109.)


- Authors:

Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili, Vandad Sharifi, Ahmad Hajebi, Reza Radgoodarzi, Mitra Hefazi, Abbas Motevalian

- Abstract:

Iranian Mental Health Survey (IranMHS) was conducted to assess the twelve-month prevalence and severity of psychiatric disorders in the Iranian adult population and to determine the pattern of health care utilization and cost of services. IranMHS is a cross-sectional national household survey with face-to-face interviews as the main data collection method. The study was carried out between January and June 2011. A three-stage probability sampling was applied for the selection of a representative sample from the non-institutionalized population aged 15 to 64. The primary instrument utilized for assessing the prevalence of mental disorders was the Persian version of Composite International Diagnosis Interview, version 2.1. The instruments for assessing the service and cost of mental illness were developed by the research team. The response rate was 86.2%, and a total of 7886 individuals participated in the study. Sampling weights were the joint product of inverse probability of unit selection, non-response weights and post-stratification weights. This paper presents an overview of the study design, fieldwork organization and procedures, weightings and analysis. The strengths and limitations of the study are also discussed.


22- A nationwide population-based study on incidence and cost of non-fatal injuries in Iran (Inj Prev. 2014 Oct;20(5):e9. doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2013-041127. Epub 2014 Feb 20.)


- Authors:

Hafezi-Nejad N, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Motevalian A, Amin-Esmaeili M, Sharifi V, Hajebi A, Radgoodarzi R, Hefazi M, Eslami V, Saadat S, Rahimi-Movaghar V

- Abstract:

BACKGROUND:

Elucidating the epidemiological status of injuries is a critical component of preventive strategies in countries with high incidence of injuries, like Iran. Population-based surveys are able to estimate all types of non-fatal injuries.

OBJECTIVES:

This study protocol is the core unit in describing Iran&#39;s national cost and epidemiology of non-fatal injuries, and also as a guide for other studies.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:

In a cross-sectional study, 1525 primary sampling units are randomly selected with probability proportional to size regarding the number of households in each enumeration area based on Iran&#39;s 2006 national census. Six of the households are randomly selected. One member of each household is chosen using Kish Grid tables. In all, 9150 subjects are selected. Data on demographics are collected. For each injury during the past three months, activity, place, mechanism, site, type and the place of treatment are coded to match the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision 2012 (ICD10-2012) classifications. Subjects are contacted via telephone to obtain data on cost of injury. Finally, sampling weights are calculated so that data for each respondent can be inflated to represent other individuals in Iran. Quality control and quality assurance issues are discussed.

DISCUSSION:

Our objectives will describe the present impact and the future priorities of injury prevention in Iran.


23- Estimating the prevalence of illicit drug use among students using the crosswise model (Subst Use Misuse. 2014 Aug;49(10):1303-10. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2014.897730. Epub 2014 Apr 1.)


- Authors:

Shamsipour M, Yunesian M, Fotouhi A, Jann B, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Asghari F, Akhlaghi AA.

- Abstract:

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of our study is to compare the prevalence of illicit drug use estimated through a technique referred to as the "crosswise model" (CM) with the results from conventional direct questioning (DQ).

METHOD:

About 1,500 students from Tehran University of Medical Sciences 2009-2010 were first interviewed by DQ and, then three months later, by the CM.

RESULT:

The CM yielded significantly higher estimates than DQ for lifetime prevalence of use of any illicit drug (CM = 20.2%,DQ = 3.0%, p < .001) and for lifetime prevalence of use of opium or its residue (CM = 13.6%, DQ = 1.0%, p < .001). Also, for use of any illicit drug in the last month and use of opium or its residue in the last month, the CM yielded higher point estimates than DQ, although these differences were not significant (any drug: CM = 1.5%, DQ = 0.2%, p = .66; opium: CM = 3.8%, DQ = 0.0%, p = .21).

CONCLUSION:

Our findings suggest that the CM is a fruitful data collection method for sensitive topics such as substance abuse.


24- The Translation and Psychometric Assessment of the Persian Version of the Sheehan Disability Scale (Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 2014. 9(3):125-132.)


- Authors:

Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili, Abbas Motevalian, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Ahmad Hajebi, Mitra Hefazi, Reza Radgoodarzi, Vandad Sharifi

- Abstract

Objective: The Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) assesses disability in four domains of home management, work responsibilities, close relationships and social life. The main objective of this study was to develop the Persian version of the SDS.

Method: Two steps of field work followed the Persian translation and cultural adaptation of the tool: First, the internal consistency and convergent validity was examined in 104 clinical cases recruited from inpatient and outpatient psychiatric services, using 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Then 88 individuals were randomly selected from the adult general population to assess internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and known group validity.

Results: In the clinical settings, Cronbach&rsquo;s &alpha; coefficient was 0.88 and item-total correlation ranged from 0.71 to 0.78 in various domains. The correlation between SDS and SF-36 (P<0.001) was significant in all the areas of the performance; and neither of the correlations was statistically significant when SDS and GAF were compared. In the general population study, the SDS met a good internal consistency (&alpha; = 0.81) and known group validity, and the inter-rater reliability was perfect for &ldquo;school/work responsibility&rdquo;.

Conclusion: The Persian translation of the SDS is a simple and short scale, and it seems to be a valid scale for the measurement of disability in clinical settings and in the Iranian general population.


25- Possible involvement of CA1 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptors in harmaline-induced amnesia. (Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2014 Oct;125:70-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2014.08.007. Epub 2014 Aug 30.)


- Authors:

Nasehi M, Jamshidi-Mehr M, Khakpai F, Zarrindast MR

- Abstract:

In the present study, effects of the serotonergic system of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) on harmaline-induced amnesia were examined. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention in adult male NMRI mice. Pre-training intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration of harmaline (1mg/kg) induced impairment of memory retention. Moreover, intra-CA1 administration of 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist, CP94253 (5ng/mouse), 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR127935 (0.05 and 0.5ng/mouse), 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor agonist, &alpha;-methyl 5-HT (0.5ng/mouse) and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, cinancerine (0.5ng/mouse) impaired memory acquisition, but did not affect locomotor activity and tail flick. Furthermore, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of subthreshold dose of CP94253 (0.05ng/mouse) or GR127935 (0.005ng/mouse) reversed impairment of memory acquisition induced by harmaline (1mg/kg, i.p.). However, pre-training intra-CA1 infusion of subthreshold dose of &alpha;-methyl 5-HT (0.005ng/mouse) or cinancerine (0.005ng/mouse) with the administration of harmaline (0.5 and 1mg/kg, i.p.) heighten impairment of memory acquisition. These findings implicate the involvement of CA1 serotonergic mechanism in harmaline-induced impairment of memory acquisition.


26- Development and validation of the multidimensional vaginal penetration disorder questionnaire (MVPDQ) for assessment of lifelong vaginismus in a sample of Iranian women. (J Res Med Sci. 2014 Apr;19(4):336-48.)


- Authors:

Molaeinezhad M, Roudsari RL, Yousefy A, Salehi M, Khoei EM

- Abstract:

BACKGROUND:

Vaginismus is considered as one of the most common female psychosexual dysfunctions. Although the importance of using a multidisciplinary approach for assessment of vaginal penetration disorder is emphasized, the paucity of instruments for this purpose is clear. We designed a study to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of a multidimensional vaginal penetration disorder questionnaire (MVPDQ), thereby assisting specialists for clinical assessment of women with lifelong vaginismus (LLV).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

MVPDQ was developed using the findings from a thematic qualitative research conducted with 20 unconsummated couples from a former study, which was followed by an extensive literature review. Then, during a cross-sectional design, a consecutive sample of 214 women, who were diagnosed as LLV based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR criteria completed MVPDQ and additional questions regarding their demographic and sexual history. Validation measures and reliability were tested by exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach&#39;s alpha coefficient via Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.

RESULTS:

After conducting exploratory factor analysis, MVPDQ emerged with 72 items and 9 dimensions: Catastrophic cognitions and tightening, helplessness, marital adjustment, hypervigilance, avoidance, penetration motivation, sexual information, genital incompatibility, and optimism. Subscales of MVPDQ showed a significant reliability that varied between 0.70 and 0.87 and results of test-retest were satisfactory.

CONCLUSION:

The present study shows that MVPDQ is a valid and reliable self-report questionnaire for clinical assessment of women complaining of LLV. This instrument may assist specialists to make a clinical judgment and plan appropriately for clinical management.


27- Methamphetamine use among Iranian heroin kerack-dependent women: implications for treatment. (Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2013 Jun;2(1):15-21. doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.10216. Epub 2013 Jun 26.)


- Authors:

Alam Mehrjerdi Z, Abarashi Z, Mansoori S, Deylamizadeh A, Salehi Fadardi J, Noroozi A, Zarghami M

- Abstract:

BACKGROUND:

Co-use of heroin kerack with methamphetamine (MA) is a new epidemic health concern among Iranian female drug users. Yet, little is known about this issue because of stigma.

OBJECTIVES:

The current study aimed to investigate the reasons associated with initial and continued co-use of heroin kerack with MA among two groups of regular and recreational female co-users, their motivations associated with treatment entry and to compare their general characteristics at a drop in center (DIC) in Tehran.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

82 clients were randomly recruited. A researcher-designed questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed by performing descriptive statistics, the Chi-square test and t-test.

RESULTS:

The mean age of the participants were 31 (SD = 8) years. Reducing negative affect (55%), addicted family and social networks (50%), curiosity (48%), and the lack of knowledge on addictive effects of co-use of heroin kerack with MA (32%) were the most frequently reported reasons at initiation. Drug dependence (71%) and drug availability (56%) were reasons of continued co-use. Restoring health (61%), fear from becoming MA abuser only (33%), and fear from making a transition from heroin kerack and MA smoking to injection (15%) were important motivations for treatment entry. Regular co-users were more likely to be single (41.7% vs. 14.7%, P < 0.001), jobless (45.8% vs. 38.2, P < 0.05), homemaker (50% vs. 35.3%, P < 0.01), recently incarcerated (16.7% vs. 11.7%, P < 0.01), and were less likely to be enrolled in opioid replacement programs (33.5% vs. 41%, P < 0.01). Regular co-users were younger (30.6 vs. 32.1 years, P < 0.05), less educated (9.6 vs. 10.8 years, P < 0.05) and had a longer duration of drug dependence (9.6 vs. 8 years, P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Reasons associated with initial and continued co-use of heroin kerack with MA, factors associated with treatment entry and the differences between regular and recreational co-users should be specifically considered in designing and tailoring drug use treatment programs for this group.


28- Development and psychometric evaluation of the Premarital Sexual Behavior Assessment Scale for Young Women (PSAS-YW): an exploratory mixed method study. (Reprod Health. 2014 Jun 13;11:43. doi: 10.1186/1742-4755-11-43.)


- Authors:

Rahmani A, Merghati-Khoei E, Moghadam-Banaem L, Hajizadeh E, Hamdieh M, Montazeri A.

- Abstract:

BACKGROUND:

Premarital sexual behaviors are important issue for women&#39;s health. The present study was designed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale in order to identify young women who are at greater risk of premarital sexual behavior.

METHOD:

This was an exploratory mixed method investigation. Indeed, the study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, qualitative methods (focus group discussion and individual interview) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. In the second phase, psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the questionnaire were assessed.

RESULTS:

In the first phase an item pool containing 53 statements related to premarital sexual behavior was generated. In the second phase item reduction was applied and the final version of the questionnaire containing 26 items was developed. The psychometric properties of this final version were assessed and the results showed that the instrument has a good structure, and reliability. The results from exploratory factory analysis indicated a 5-factor solution for the instrument that jointly accounted for the 57.4% of variance observed. The Cronbach&#39;s alpha coefficient for the instrument was found to be 0.87.

CONCLUSION:

This study provided a valid and reliable scale to identify premarital sexual behavior in young women. Assessment of premarital sexualbehavior might help to improve women&#39;s sexual abstinence.


29- Vaginismus and its correlates in an Iranian clinical sample. (Int J Impot Res. 2014 May 15. doi: 10.1038/ijir.2014.16)


- Authors:

Farnam F, Janghorbani M, Merghati-Khoei E, Raisi F

- Abstract:

Although vaginismus is a relatively common female sexual dysfunction in Iran, there are scant studies reporting on its clinical and social features. The aim of the present study was to compare the social and clinical characteristics of women with vaginismus with those of healthy women. The study comprises 22 patients with vaginismus and 22 healthy controls who presented to the health clinics of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. We used three assessment tools: interview, a (34-item) questionnaire for demographic and clinical characteristics of vaginismus and a 13-item questionnaire of Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (FSDS-R) for sexual distress. The majority (73%) of women with vaginismus had primary vaginismus (unconsummated marriage). These women demonstrated significant higher phobia than healthy women, including fear of genital pain and penetration, fear of bleeding during intercourse, height phobia, aversion to looking or touching the genitalia, fear of vaginal disproportion and also disgust of semen. Compared with the healthy women, these women displayed a significantly higher sexual distress score, defecation or urination problems, general anxiety, higher education levels and lower self-esteem. Our findings suggest that there is a strong correlation between vaginismus, phobia and anxiety.


30- Sexuality Education in Malaysia: Perceived Issues and Barriers by Professionals. (Asia Pac J Public Health. 2014 Jan 30;26(4):358-366.)


- Authors:

Khalaf ZF, Low WY, Merghati-Khoei E, Ghorbani B

- Abstract:

This research explored the perspectives of Malaysian professionals on the issues and barriers affecting the implementation of sexuality education in Malaysia. This qualitative study involved in-depth interviews with 15 key professionals working in the field of sexuality and reproductive health in Malaysia. Thematic analysis was selected to analyze data. Barriers to sexuality education were perceived from 5 aspects: feasibility, acceptability, accountability, strategies, and community unawareness. Respondents believed that implementing national sexuality education is a time-consuming project. They regarded Malaysian multicultural society as a barrier to national sexuality education, and they believed that school-based sexuality education is not easily accomplished in Malaysia; also abstinence-only policy restricts the access of young people to accurate information. Lack of community involvement was perceived as a key concern to sexuality education. Campaigning to promote awareness of families, teachers, community leaders, and policy makers are recommended to help establishing national sexuality education in Malaysia.


31- "Children are sexually innocent": Iranian parents&#39; understanding of children&#39;s sexuality. (Arch Sex Behav. 2014 Apr;43(3):587-95. doi: 10.1007/s10508-013-0218-6. Epub 2013 Dec 17.)


- Authors:

Merghati-Khoei E, Abolghasemi N, Smith TG.

- Abstract:

Sexuality education (SE) is hotly contested in the West and there is much abstinence-only education; however, it remains controversial in a variety of contexts, including in Iran. The lack of consensus about children&#39;s SE in Muslim societies obliges us to explore different aspects of this topic systematically. The qualitative research presented here was about how Iranian parents perceived children&#39;s sexuality. Data from parents of 26 children were collected during four focus group sessions. Informants were selected from Area 5 in West Tehran. This area included 72 primary schools for girls and 82 for boys. The sessions were facilitated by using a semi-structured focus group guide. Content analysis was adopted using combined free and analytical coding to reduce data, to extract meanings, and to categorize domains. One of the three main domains identified, family management of child sexuality, is comprised of the following: (1) understanding of child sexuality, (2) family rules, (3) parent-child interactions, and (4) opposite sex interactions. Parental misinformation, accumulated myths, and ignorance about children&#39;s sexual development were evident. Strict family rules and a lack of consistent policy and instruction for SE were also identified. Parents said they were neither well-prepared nor competent to educate their children about sexuality. In fact, a majority of mothers raised "incompetence" as an important determinant in their own parent-child interactions. Societal changes as well as children&#39;s socialization patterns have forced parents to accept their children&#39;s opposite sex friendships as a reality. Results suggest a community need for developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive SE for schools and parental use.


32- Menopause negatively impacts sexual lives of middle-aged Iranian women: a cross-sectional study. (J Sex Marital Ther. 2014;40(6):552-60. doi: 10.1080/0092623X.2013.796577. Epub 2013 Dec 5.)


- Authors:

Merghati-Khoei E, Sheikhan F, Shamsalizadeh N, Haghani H, Yousofnia Pasha YR, Killeen T.

- Abstract:

The study aimed to explore associations between sexual function, demographic variables, health and menopausal status among middle-aged Iranianwomen. Participants were 200 Iranian middle-aged women (40-65 years). All women completed the Female Sexual Function Index and the Brief Profile of Female Sexual Function. Data were analyzed using a Pearson correlation statistical test, a one-way analysis of variance, an independent t test, and a linear regression analysis. Advanced age, lower education, and socioeconomic status were significantly correlated with the lower scores on the Female Sexual Function Index. Lower scores on the Female Sexual Function Index were associated with being retired; having a hysterectomy or oophorectomy; and presence of hot flashes, vaginal dryness, health problems, prescription drug use, and cold sweats. There were no significant associations between middle-aged women&#39;s sexual function and ethnicity, body mass index, alcohol consumption, severity of hot flashes, and hot flash frequency. Sexual desire was decreased or absent in 94.5% of the postmenopausal respondents. Our findings appear that sexual function is associated with sociodemographic characteristics of Iranian middle-aged women. Gender-sensitive counseling and medical services for aging Iranianwomen can improve the quality of women&#39;s sexual lives.


33- Community-Based Relapse Prevention for Opiate Dependents: A Randomized Community Controlled Trial. (Community Mental Health Journal, August 2014)


Authors

Masoomeh Maarefvand, Mostafa Eghlima, Hasan Rafiey, Mahdi Rahgozar, Nazanin Tadayyon, Abbas Deilamizadeh, Hamed Ekhtiari

Abstract

Relapse prevention (RP) programs mainly focus on patients and their families; however a patient&rsquo;s community can also play a significant role in RP. A randomized-controlled-trial was conducted among opiate-dependents discharging from residential abstinence-based treatment programs to assess the effect of a community-based relapse prevention program (CBRP) on the RP. Seventy-one participants were consented and randomized into CBPR (n = 35) or treatment-as-usual arms. Developing and implementing CBRP, social-workers and peer-group counselors facilitated and advocated thirty-six RP projects across 7 communities during a three-month follow-up period. Negative-drug-tests, 45 and 90 days after discharge from residential programs were considered as the main outcome. Abstinence rates were significantly greater for patients who received CBRP in comparison to the subjects in the treatment-as-usual arm at 45 days (27 and 20, P < 0.004) and 90 days (27 and 21, P < 0.007) after discharge. CBRP was an effective method for RP among opiate-dependents after being discharged from the residential programs.


34- Alcohol and Cognition; From Neurotoxicity Prevention to Cognitive Rehabilitation (Medical Toxicology: Volume 3, Supplement 1, May 2014, Page 7-7)


Authors

Hamed Ekhtiari

Abstract

Alcohol provokes different molecular pathways contributing to a clinically significant neurotoxicity in different brain areas. Affected cognition in alcoholics can influence both daily life functioning and alcohol craving management abilities. Preventing alcohol-induced neurotoxicity with different neuroprotective pharmacological interventions is receiving strong scientific backgrounds from published evidences done on animal models. But the question is how we can translate these evidences into clinical applications for active alcohol users. Cognitive rehabilitation with targeted and graded exercises has provided clinicians with new hopes for helping affected clients to retain their functions for a normal healthy life. Moreover, rehabilitation protocols for patients who have serious cognitive impairments due to chronic alcohol use disorder, current available interventional packages and future horizons for further studies in Iran should be addressed.


35- Operationalizing Cognitive Science and Technologies&rsquo; Research and Development; the &ldquo;Brain and Cognition Study Group (BCSG)&rdquo; Initiative from Shiraz, Iran (Spring 2014, Volume 5, Number 2)


Authors

Nahid Ashjazadeh, Reza Boostani, Hamed Ekhtiari, Masoumeh Emamghoreishi, Majidreza Farrokhi, Ahmad Ghanizadeh,Gholamreza Hatam, Habib Hadianfard, Mehrzad Lotfi, Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi, Maryam Mousavi, Afshin Montakhab, Majid Nili, Ali Razmkon, Sina Salehi, Amir Mohammad Sodagar, Peiman Setoodeh, Mousa Taghipour, Mohammad Torabi-Nami, Abdolkarim Vesal.

Abstract

Recent advances in brain and cognitive science studies have revolutionized concepts in neural dynamics, regulating mechanisms, coding systems and information processing networks which govern our function and behavior. Hidden aspects of neurological and psychiatric diseases are being understood and hopes for their treatment are emerging. Although the two comprehensive mega-projects on brain mapping are in place in the United States and Europe; the proportion of science contributed by the developing countries should not be downsized. With the granted supports from the Cognitive Sciences and Technologies Council (CSTC), Iran can take its role in research on brain and cognition
further. The idea of research and development in Cognitive Sciences and Technologies (CST) is being disseminated across the country by CSTC. Towards this goal, the first Shiraz interdisciplinary meeting on CST was held on 9 January 2014 in Namazi hospital, Shiraz. CST research priorities, infrastructure development, education and promotion were among the main topics discussed during this interactive meeting. The steering committee of the first CST meeting in Shiraz decided to frame future research works within the &ldquo;Brain and Cognition Study Group-Shiraz&rdquo; ( BCSG-Shiraz). The study group comprises scientific leaders from various allied disciplines including neuroscience, neurosurgery, neurology, psychiatry, psychology, radiology, physiology, bioengineering, biophysics, applied physics and telecommunication. As the headquarter for CST in the southern Iran, BCSG-Shiraz is determined to advocate &ldquo;brain and cognition&rdquo; awareness, education and research in close collaboration with CSTC. Together with CSTC, Shiraz Neuroscience Research center (SNRC) will take the initiative to cross boundaries in interdisciplinary works and multi-centric research projects within the study group.


36- State dependent effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on methamphetamine craving. (The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology: Volume 17 / Issue 10 / October 2014, pp 1591-1598)


Authors

Alireza Shahbabaie, Mehrshad Golesorkhi, Behnam Zamanian, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Fatemeh Keshvari, Vahid Nejati, Felipe Fregni,Hamed Ekhtiari

Abstract

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate subjective craving ratings in drug dependents by modification of cortical excitability in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Given the mechanism of craving in methamphetamine (meth) users, we aimed to test whether tDCS of DLPFC could also alter self-reported craving in abstinent meth users while being exposed to meth cues. In this double-blinded, crossover, sham-controlled study, thirty two right-handed abstinent male meth users were recruited. We applied 20 min &lsquo;anodal&rsquo; tDCS (2 mA) or &lsquo;sham&rsquo; tDCS over right DLPFC in a random sequence while subjects performed a computerized cue-induced craving task (CICT) starting after 10 min of stimulation. Immediate craving was assessed before the stimulation, after 10 min of tDCS, and after tDCS termination by visual analog scale (VAS) of 0 to 100. Anodal tDCS of rDLPFC altered craving ratings significantly. We found a significant reduction of craving at rest in real tDCS relative to the sham condition (p = 0.016) after 10 min of stimulation. On the other hand, cue-induced VAS craving was rated significantly higher in the real condition in comparison with sham stimulation (p = 0.012). Our findings showed a state dependent effect of tDCS: while active prefrontal tDCS acutely reduced craving at rest in the abstinent meth users, it increased craving during meth-related cue exposure. These findings reflect the important role of the prefrontal cortex in both cue saliency evaluation and urge to meth consumption.


37- Comparing Emotion Regulation in Methamphetamine abuser with and without Risky Behavior (Rehabilation: Volume 14 - S1 - Addiction Special Issue)


Authors:

Mohammad Najafi, Ali Farhoudian, Marziyeh Alivandi Vafa, Hamed Ekhtiari , Omid Massah

Abstract

Objective: People may deny stress to get rid of it. In this case, they tend to exhibit high-risk behaviors. Inability to solve problems and emotional conflicts leads to high-risk behavior in addicts. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between risky behavior history (prison records and drug injection history) and emotion regulation in methamphetamine abusers. Materials & Methods: In this case-control study, 60 methamphetamine users (13 people with prisons records and 11 people with drug injection history) were selected purposefully from persons who had been admitted to convenient treatment centers (MMT center, addiction treatment camp and self-help groups and Narcotics Anonymous). Demographic data and risky behavior history were gathered. The &lsquo;Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire&rsquo; (CERQ) was used to assess emotion regulation. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Results: The findings revealed no significant difference in CERQ subscales between the groups. Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between emotion regulation and risky behavior such as prison records and drug injection history in methamphetamine users.


 

بررسی موتاسيون های اگزون سوم ژن گيرنده اپيوئيدی مو در افراد معتاد به مواد مخدر اوپيوئيدی


نويسندگان: امين ديناروند- علی گودرزی- نسيم وثوقی- مهرداد هاشمی- رسول ديناروند- فاطمه استادزاده- احد خوش زبان- محمدرضا زرين دست

چاپ: 2014


- چکيده:

Introduction: Association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mu opioid receptor gene and drug addiction has been shown in various studies. Here, we have evaluated the existence of polymorphisms in exon 3 of this gene in Iranian population and investigated the possible association between these mutations and opioid addiction

Methods: 79 opioid-dependent subjects (55 males, 24 females) and 134 non-addict or control individuals (74 males, 60 females) participated in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from volunteers&rsquo; peripheral blood and exon 3 of the mu opioid receptor gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) whose products were then sequenced

Results: Three different heterozygote polymorphisms were observed in 3 male individuals: 759T>C and 877G>A mutations were found in 2 control volunteers and 1043G>C substitution was observed in an opioid-addicted subject. Association between genotype and opioid addiction for each mutation was not statistically significant

Discussion: It seems that the sample size used in our study is not enough to confirm or reject any association between 759T>C, 877G>A and 1043G>C substitutions in exon 3 of the mu opioid receptor gene and opioid addiction susceptibility in Iranian population


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